Nepalgrass. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 912–923. This fact sheet may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum), also called Nepalese browntop, is an aggressive invader of forest lands throughout the eastern United States. In the above photo, Japanese Stiltgrass climbs the deer fencing on my north side. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Japanese stiltgrass, (Microstegium vimineum) infesting woodland, USA. Pickerel and wood frogs seemed to select primarily areas of high soil moisture, which was consistently greater in stilt grass plots. Areas 4 and 5 were sampled only in 2007. Cost savings from properly managing endangered species habitats. Unequal deer browsing on native rather than invasive plants facilitates the establishment and proliferation of invasive species while severely inhibiting the growth of native species (Rooney and Waller 2003). 1988; Chen 2001; Zavaleta et al. Direct and indirect effects of white–tailed deer in forest ecosystems. It was first introduced to North America when it was used as packing material in the 1900’s.Japanese stiltgrass has a wide range of habitat preferences including stream banks, river bluffs, forested wetlands, home lawns and gardens allow it to spread easily to new locations. 2001. By changing the forest understory habitat, it negatively affects ground-nesting birds; specifically, the nesting habitat of the Bobwhite Quail. Copeia 1974: 165–171. Japanese stiltgrass grows well in many light conditions (from deeply shaded hemlock forests to sunny open fields), prefers damp conditions, and often can be found in disturbed areas. Managers should also bear in mind the potential role of nonnative flora as habitat when contemplating a comprehensive restoration plan where such species provide the only available habitat. Differences in earthworm densities and nitrogen dynamics in soils under exotic and native plant species. DeGraaf, R.M., and D.D. OFAH/OMNRF Invading Species Awareness Program. Dole, J.W. If stilt grass does in fact have a causal effect upon soil moisture, as suggested by Ehrenfeld et al. Fish says Japanese stiltgrass had never been confirmed in Maine until a couple of weeks ago when it was discovered at a plant nursery in York County. Future research should work to identify which invasive species have beneficial or mitigating characteristics (and why) and which specific wildlife species are able to use nonnative habitat. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant–pollinator interactions. 180 p. Dissertation. Biology and Fertility of Soils 10: 17–21. Cameron, A.C., and P.K. Duellman, W.E., and L. Trueb. Biological Invasions 1: 237–245. Japanese stiltgrass was introduced to the United States in Tennessee in 1919 and has since spread to most of the states east of the Mississippi, appearing in Pennsylvania in 1938. Baldwin, R.F., A.J.K. Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Stilt grass is thought to more readily colonize moister areas (Gibson et al. Alternately, American toads were caught more often on humid days, but selected stilt grass either independently of or increasingly with greater relative humidity. Stinson, K.A., S.A. Campbell, J.R. Powell, B.E. Japanese stiltgrass. 1994. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is a summer annual grass that generally grows 1-3 feet in a branching, sprawling, mat-like manner. Stilt grass presence/absence could not be ranked in this way because it was included in a greater proportion of the model set than other variables. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Calhoun, and P.G. 2003. Wyman, R.L. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. Tracy, C.R. ♦ Infestations of Japanese stilt-grass change the habitat of the forest floor, making it less hospitable for ground nesting birds. Stilt grass is native to southeastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia) and India, and was first found in the United States in 1919 (Barden 1987). Figure 1: Map of study area, stilt grass cover, and approximate locations of trap arrays, Mianus River Gorge Preserve, NY. It is certainly likely that stilt grass would be less suitable compared to an intact herbaceous community. This would suggest greater activity within stilt grass (as opposed to greater abundance) since animals need to be moving in order to fall into a pitfall trap. 2004), yet little has been done to explore how its structural or microclimate conditions might make it a potentially suitable habitat for small fauna. The threat of invasive alien species to biological diversity: setting a future course. Are overabundant deer herds in the Eastern United States creating alternate stable states in forest plant communities? Species Description & Habitat . Huang. Similarly, plot-specific rainfall data (as opposed to data at the town or county level) would also be necessary, since a small rain shower may not hit all of the plots but may still affect anuran activity. 2002; Leicht et al. Exotic plants in particular are typically regarded as undesirable community elements capable of outcompeting native species (D'Antonio and Mahall 1991; Hamilton et al. A review of the distribution and zoogeography of the pickerel frog, Rana palustris, in northern Illinois. From a practical perspective, these data indicate that an exotic species can provide stable alternate habitat until native vegetation can recolonize or be restored. Coexistence and interference between a native perennial grass and nonnative annual grasses in California. 2006), influencing rates of chemical cycling (Ehrenfeld 2003), and influencing successional trends (Stromayer and Warren 1997). However, there are circumstances in which invasive plant species may provide habitat or food for native fauna (Hunter et al. Japanese stiltgrass can grow in most habitats with moist soil, including mature woods, recently harvested sites, floodplains, wetlands, abandoned fields, and roadsides. However, for all species, models that also included stilt grass as a main effect and those that included a stilt grass interaction received substantial support, indicating that stilt grass provides some habitat value beyond its effect on any supported microclimate variable. Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Buy native or non-invasive plants from reputable garden suppliers. And if you don’t do it before the grass sets seed in mid-summer, what you pull returns a hundred-fold anyway. If native species are inhibited or completely usurped by nonnative species, managers face the choice of removing invasives (effectively destroying habitat) or allowing them to remain at the risk of the aforementioned impacts (D'Antonio and Meyerson 2002). Rudis. This made meaningful comparisons between days of low and high precipitation impossible. PLoS Biology 4: e140 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040140. We used pitfall trap arrays to sample anuran species during the summers of 2006 and 2007 and we captured four species: wood frog (Rana sylvatica); pickerel frog (Lithobates palustris); spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer); and American toad (Bufo americanus). Once established populations can rapidly increase and occupy areas of several acres in size. I can’t mow right up against the fence because of the way it’s installed. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 105: 493–501. Small infestations of stiltgrass are easily pulled, as the roots are very shallow. Check. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 129: 207–219. Waller, D.M., and W.S. Vonesh, J.R. 2001. He says it’s one of the most harmful non-native invasive plants. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is bright green with a distinctive silvery stripe of reflective hairs along the midrib of each narrow, lance-shaped blade. Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. If a global model fits the data suitably, then any subset model will have a similar fit (Burnham and Anderson 2002). Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Akaike weights were calculated for each model to determine which of the candidate models best explained the data. Control. American Journal of Botany 78: 885–894. In addition, soil moisture had the highest parameter weights for pickerel frog models and wood frog models (Table 5). Weltzin. One should not mix hypothesis testing (i.e., significance tests) with AIC or other information-theoretic approaches. Waller. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press. 2005. Parameter estimates for American toad models indicated that this species selected areas with high relative humidity and stilt grass percent cover (Stilt+Hum: ΔAICc =0, w=0.3276) (Table 3). Amphibians and reptiles of New England: habitats and natural history. 1998. Retrieved from: www.invadingspecies.com. It was first introduced to North America when it was used as packing material in the 1900’s. Mierzwa. Fitzgerald, G.J., and J.R. Bider. 2005. It thrives as a weed in lawns and gardens. A large trap array (Areas 1–3) consisted of a central pitfall bucket with three 5-meter fences leading away from it, with approximately 120° between each fence. Liu. Callaway, G.C. 1988. Model-averaged coefficients and unconditional standard errors were calculated using these subsets and their recalculated Akaike weights (Burnham and Anderson 2002). 2006) and herbaceous diversity (unpublished data from MRGP), though the hemlock sections remain free of many invasive species. On days with greater soil moisture, there was some support from the interaction models that the two frog species are not constrained to the stilt grass patches. Porter, W.F., N.E. Mathews, H.B. Gibson, D.J., G. Spyreas, and J. Benedict. Japanese stiltgrass has become established across the eastern United States from New York to Florida, as well as west to Texas and Illinois. Redmer, M., and K.S. U.S. Distribution: Japanese stiltgrass was first documented in Tennessee in 1919, introduced as a packing material for goods from Asia. 1991; Rondeau and Conrad 2003). Seebacher, F., and R.A. Alford. The dense ground cover provided by stilt grass might also alter temperature, either by insulating soils or blocking sunlight. Judge, Caren A. Biotropica 33: 502–510. 1988. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum): Population dynamics and management for restoration of native plant communities. Humidity has been shown to affect toad movement and distribution (Ewert 1969; Fitzgerald and Bider 1974), so its association with toad captures in this study is not surprising. Japanese Stiltgrass Microstegium vimineum. HABITAT—Japanese Stiltgrass prefers partial shade and moist soils, but can grow in a wide range of conditions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2: 354–360. It is a very invasive grass; native originally to Japan, India, Malaysia, and China, it has spread to many other areas around the world, including New Zealand, Nepal, South America, and Africa. 1991. Japanese stiltgrass, or microstegium vimineum, is anything but harmless in the United States. Environmental correlates of the distribution and abundance of Microstegium vimineum, in East Tennessee. 2000. Infestations typically begin in disturbed sites; once established, infestations can spread to undisturbed areas. Soil temperature was measured using a Taylor soil thermometer and soil moisture was measured using a Kelway Soil Tester, both at a depth of 10 centimeters. 1963. Nonnative earthworms (present throughout the MRGP) have been found in greater abundance in soils colonized by exotic species (Kourtev et al. 1999. 2005. Maerz, J.C., J.M. Regression analysis of count data. Habitat: Japanese stiltgrass is especially adapted to low light conditions and will thrive in a wide range of habitats including woodlands, wetlands, fields, and roadsides. In 2006, sampling was limited to three large (> 1000 m²), well-established stilt grass populations (Areas 1, 2, and 3) within the hardwood forest; stilt grass has yet or is unable to invade the old-growth hemlock stands. Exotic plant species as problems and solutions in ecological restoration: a synthesis. Areas 1, 2, and 3 (large arrays) were sampled 136 trap nights each (78 trap nights per treatment) and Areas 4 and 5 (small arrays) were sampled for 30 trap nights total (15 trap nights per treatment). Following precipitation, frogs would be equally or less likely to be found in stilt grass as not. Kourtev, P.S., J.G. The authors wish to thank Dr. Robert Rockwell and Dr. John Tirpak for their assistance in analysis and interpretation, the MRGP Board of Trustees, and Peter Snell for his assistance in the field. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 90: 67–76. 1999. D'Antonio, C.M., and B.E. 1989. 1988). Richards, S.A. 2008. It produces copious numbers of fruits on nodding inflorescences, … Invasion of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an exotic, annual, shade-tolerant, C-4 grass, into a North Carolina floodplain. This species requires land disturbance, such as mowing, grazing or burn… Ewel, J.J., and F.E. A northern pearly eye butterfly perches on nimblewill (top). Cole, P.G., and J.F. The effect of earthworm invasion on nutrient turnover, microorganisms and microarthropods in Canadian aspen forest soil. Ecological Applications 11: 1287–1300. Both the hardwood and hemlock areas have exhibited sharp declines in their woody understory (Weckel et al. 2001). 1999. Chen, L.Y. Rutberg, A.T., R.E. One feature to notice is the pale stripe of hair along the midrib of the upper leaf surface. Japanese Stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) *Detected in Michigan* Identification: • Delicate, low-growing annual grass • Stems sprawl over one another and root at nodes • Short (3-8 cm) alternate leaves are pale green, lance-shaped with a distinctive, shiny mid-rib, slightly off-center . Liu, Z.G. American toads appeared to select stilt grass patches in all supported main effect models, while in the supported interaction model, there was a negative stilt grass effect but a positive interaction with humidity (which actually predicts greater toad captures in stilt grass within 0.8–100% humidity). Trap arrays consisted of pitfall traps made from buried 5-gallon buckets and drift fencing made of plastic silt fencing material. The History Of Japanese Stiltgrass (Nepalese Browntop) The Japanese stiltgrass is actually an annual grass that is native to the regions of China, India, Korea, Malaysia, Japan and the Caucasus Mountains. Flowers have 1 to 3 spikes with the flowers clustered along the spike. Anderson, R.C., and O.L. Native Range: China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, and India. Ecological Monographs 46: 293–326. Too few spring peepers were captured for analysis, so we modeled the captures of the three remaining species—wood frog, pickerel frog, and American toad—with negative binomial regression against stilt grass presence/absence, soil moisture, soil temperature, and relative humidity. Habitat relationships of amphibians and reptiles in California oak woodlands. Lillywhite, H.B., and P. Licht. Ecology 44: 238–255. However, there may be selected invasions that could be left to provide surrogate habitat until native restoration is completed, particularly if removal would be excessively expensive or destructive. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs – Ontario Weeds, Ontario Invading Species Awareness Program. Models are ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), which penalizes the maximum likelihood of a model proportional to the number of parameters in the model. Root profiles and competition between the invasive exotic perennial, Carpobrotus edulis, and two native shrub species in California coastal scrub. Two smaller populations (approx. When hiking, reduce the spread of invasive plants and seeds by staying on trails keeping pets on a leash. Soil moisture (Dole 1967; Lillywhite and Licht 1974; Tracy 1976; Wyman 1988; Vonesh 2001), soil temperature (Brattstrom 1963; Tracy 1976; Duellman and Trueb 1994), and relative humidity at ground level (Duellman and Trueb 1994) were selected as candidate model parameters because of their known effect on habitat use by these species. Ehrenfeld, J.G. Ohmart, and B.W. 2006. The advantages and general differences of an information-theoretic approach versus traditional hypothesis testing were discussed by Anderson et al. Leaves are narrow and lightly hairy. At the far end of each fence, we buried another pitfall trap. Ehrenfeld , and W.Z. All captured animals were released immediately, outside the trap array circle (i.e., a distance greater than 5 meters away). The white–tailed deer: a keystone herbivore. It is quite similar to and often grows along with the North American grass Leersia virginica, but L. virginica lacks the distinctive silver stripe on the center of the leaf that is present on Japanese stiltgrass and also flowers one to two months earlier. In the MRGP, for example, restoration of native plants would be impractical until deer abundances are lowered. Ontario’s Invading Species Awareness Program is a partnership between the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (MNRF), and the Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (OFAH). Habitat and Distribution Japanese stiltgrass is most commonly . Canadian Journal of Zoology 52: 1–5. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. Science 277: 494–499. We hypothesized that stilt grass could provide favorable habitat by altering soil moisture or ground level humidity by limiting evaporative water loss compared to the mostly bare leaf litter of adjacent, noninvaded areas. We attempted a cursory comparison between captures and rainfall data recorded at the town level, but there were only 16 days with recorded rainfall greater than 0.1 centimeters. Cutting plants off at ground level using a string trimmer is … Since stilt grass tends to colonize moist areas, we tried to distribute our paired study plots across a range of moisture gradients. On the surface, this dichotomy appears to pit single-species management against a more community- or ecosystem-focused approach; however, it has been suggested that there may be a use for invasive flora in the restoration of degraded sights (Ewel and Putz 2004; Lamb 1998; D'Antonio and Meyerson 2002). However, we arranged our plots to take into account a broad spectrum of moisture gradients: Two of our six plots were established in drier, upland areas of the Preserve and one plot was established along a slope, yet similar microclimate patterns were observed across all of our plots. Journal of Herpetology 32: 51–60. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25: 217–226. 2006. ♦ Japanese stilt-grass reproduces exclusively by seed with individual plants producing 100 to 1,000 seeds that may stay viable in the soil for 3 - 5 years. stiltgrass habit. Header photo by Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org, © 2020 Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program, Due to COVID-19, the OFAH has modified operations. We did not mark captured animals. The plant flowers in late summer and produces its seeds in the form of a caryopsis shortly thereafter. 1997. Leicht, S.A., J.A. In the fall, leaves turn dark and the plant dies. 1994. In each area, we established paired trap arrays: one array in the area covered by stilt grass and another nearby but past the stilt grass front. AICc was used instead of QAICc (AICc corrected for overdispersion; Richards 2008) since overdispersion was accounted for by negative binomial modeling. 2002. It is tolerant of a range of soil and light conditions (Cole and Weltzin 2004), can form dense monocultures on the forest floor (Barden 1987; Leicht et al. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms. DeMaynadier. Our data show that these anuran species (particularly pickerel and wood frogs) select conditions that at least correspond to areas invaded by stilt grass. By anurans ( Behler and King 1998 ) either by insulating soils or blocking sunlight, Holzapfel! Global model fits the data suitably, then any subset model will have a causal effect upon soil moisture the... 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