atmospheric pressure in atm

If the altitude is more than 11km high above sea level, the hypsometric formula cannot be applied because the temperature lapse rate varies considerably with altitude. Atmospheric pressure can be measured with a mercury barometer (hence the commonly used synonym barometric pressure ), which indicates the height of a column of mercury that exactly balances the weight of the column of atmosphere over the … It was originally defined as the pressure exerted by 760 mm of mercury at 0 °C and standard gravity (gn = 9.80665 m/s2). Enter an atmospheric pressure that you would like: Answers: inches of mercury: inches of mercury: millimeters of mercury (torr) millimeters of mercury (torr) millibars: millibars: hecto Pascals: hecto Pascals: kilo Pascals: kilo Pascals: pounds per square inch: pounds per square inch: standard atmosphere: What does one atmospheric pressure equal in inches of mercury? And the part of our atm… To calculate the number of atmospheres for a pressure value in other units please click on the relevant unit link below. 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760.000 mmHg (millimetres of Mercury). It is defined to be equal to the pressure at sea level in the internationally accepted standard atmosphere model. In addition (the CGPM noted) there had been some misapprehension that it "led some physicists to believe that this definition of the standard atmosphere was valid only for accurate work in thermometry. atm = bar * 0.98692326671. atm = bar / 1.01325. This definition is used for pneumatic fluid power (ISO R554), and in the aerospace (ISO 2533) and petroleum (ISO 5024) industries. It was later defined as 1.01325 x 10 5 pascals. For converting many readings to or from atmospheres please use our pressure unit calculator. How many in Hg in 1 atm? How many inch of mercury in 1 atm? The atmospheric pressure observed is adjusted to the equivalent sea level pressure in order to construct the isobaric weather map. We assume you are converting between and atmosphere [standard]. The answer is 29.92125830014. The symbol for atmosphere is atm. It is often used to indicate the depth rating for a water resistant watch, but otherwise is rarely used as a unit for measuring pressure. 1 pascal is equal to 0.00029529980164712 in Hg, or 9.8692316931427E-6 atm. The barometric pressure doesn’t have to change drastically to cause headaches, either. What is the average pressure on Earth at sea level in bar pressure? A pressure of 1 atm can also be stated as: The ata unit is used in place of atm to indicate the total pressure of the system, compared to the pressure of the medium vs vacuum only. Also called barometric pressure. It corresponds to the pressure exerted by a vertical column of mercury (as in a barometer) 760 mm (29.9213 inches) high. 1 atm = 1.01325 bar → atm to bar 1 atm = 101.325 kPa → atm to kPa 1 atm = 101325 pascals → atm to pascal [1655–65] There are 0.00131579 atmospheres in a mmHg. Diagrams depict our home planet as being surrounded by a great sea of atmosphere, a few hundred miles high, divided into several different layers. A bar is a pressure unit defined as 100 kilopascals. It is approximately equal to Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level. [2] This defined both temperature and pressure independent of the properties of particular substance. The standard atmosphere value has many uses in atmospheric calculations and one example of this is the FAA procedures for setting aircraft altimeters at altitudes of 18,000 feet and above to ensure all aircraft are using the same pressure reference when measuring the height above sea level. Atmospheric pressure affects weather and temperature. © 2020 SensorsONE Ltd, all rights reserved, 5-18 psi absolute RS485 output air pressure sensor for flow monitoring density correction use, 1013 to 1400 mbar barometric pressure transmitter & readout, 5 to 20 psi absolute ambient 4 to 20 ma pressure transmitter, Barometric transducer with 23-34 inHg input range and 0-5Vdc output range, Average atmospheric pressure at sea level, 500 to 1100 hPa absolute USB interface pressure sensor, 30 psi barometric pressure transducer with 0-10Vdc out, Air flow normalising calculation barometric pressure transmitter, 550-1100mbar absolute 4-20mA high resolution air pressure sensor for environmental test chamber use, Barometric range 800-1100mb IECEx approved intrinsically safe pressure transmitter, cmH2O – Centimetres of Water Column at 4 deg C Pressure Unit, cmHg – Centimetres of Mercury at 0 deg C Pressure Unit, dyn/cm² – Dyne per Square Centimetre Pressure Unit, ftH2O – Feet of Water Column at 4 deg C Pressure Unit, g/cm² – Grams per Square Centimetre Pressure Unit, inH2O – Inches of Water Column at 4 deg C Pressure Unit, inHg – Inches of Mercury at 0 degrees C Pressure Unit, kg/cm² – Kilogram per Square Centimetre Pressure Unit, kg/mm² – Kilogram per Square Millimetre Pressure Unit, ksi – Kilopounds per Square Inch Pressure Unit, mH2O – Metres of Water Gauge at 4 deg C Pressure Unit, mmH2O – Millimetres of Water Column at 4 deg C Pressure Unit, mmHg – Millimetres of Mercury at 0 deg C Pressure Unit, N/cm² – Newton per Square Centimetre Pressure Unit, N/m2 – Newton per Square Metre Pressure Unit, N/mm² – Newton per Square Millimetre Pressure Unit, oz/in² – Ounce per Square Inch Pressure Unit, psf – Pounds per Square Foot Pressure Unit, psi – Pounds per Square Inch Pressure Unit, tsf – Tons per Square Foot (USA, Short) Pressure Unit, tsi – Tons per Square Inch (UK, Long) Pressure Unit, tsi – Tons per Square Inch (USA, Short) Pressure Unit, µHg – Micron of Mercury at 0 deg C Pressure Unit, What is the difference between gauge and absolute pressure measurement, Using Hydrostatic Pressure Transducers for Measuring Fluid Level, Using absolute pressure sensors to measure hydrostatic level, Measuring vacuum with negative gauge or absolute ranges, Measuring the difference in air pressure between rooms, Measuring liquid level in a sealed tank with a hydrostatic pressure sensor, How do you measure flow rate with a dp cell, Determining water tank volume using hydrostatic pressure, ATEX Classifications Glossary for products used in Explosive Atmospheres, Vertical Cylindrical Shaped Tank Contents Calculator, Total Volume & Total Time to Flow Rate Calculator, Temperature Transmitter 4-20mA Current Output Calculator, Pressure Transmitter 4-20mA Current Output Calculator, Piston Cylinder Pressure & Diameter to Force Calculator, Measurement Reading to 4-20mA Signal Converter, Liquid Level Transmitter 4-20mA Current Output Calculator, Liquid Depth/Level to Hydrostatic Pressure Calculator, Input to Output Measurement Reading Converter, Horizontal Cylindrical Shaped Tank Contents Calculator, 4-20mA Signal to Measurement Reading Converter. Since the actual pressure at sea level varies in an unpredictable way due to constant changes in weather conditions, an overall true average is not practical to determine or use universally because it would need to be constantly iterated to keep up with climatic variations. What does it mean? It is the atmospheric pressure that supports a column of mercury 1 millimeter high. The atmospheric pressure on Denali, Alaska, is about half that of Honolulu, Hawai'i. Author aerotoolbox Posted on June 18, 2017 June 30, 2020 Categories Aeronautical Calculators Tags barometric pressure, calculator, density altitude, standard atmosphere Post navigation Previous Previous post: Aircraft Engine and Propeller Sizing The internationally accepted ‘standard’ value at sea level is 1.01325 bar. An atmosphere (or standard atmosphere) is a non-SI unit of Pressure. One atmosphere is 1,013 millibar s, or 760 millimeters (29.92 inches) of mercury. In stock and ready to ship. On the surface of earth, the atmospheric pressure is maximum at the sea level. What is pressure Instant conversions Conversion tables; 1 atm = 760 Torr atm>Torr Torr>atm What is Torr; 1 atm = 760 000 mTorr atm>mTorr mTorr>atm What is mTorr What is Bar? The total pressure, or absolute pressure, is thus the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure: P abs = P g + P atm where P abs is absolute pressure, P g is gauge pressure, and P … Choose from our selection of atmospheric pressure gauges, including pressure gauges, vibration-resistant pressure gauges, and more. There are 9.8692 atmospheres in a megapascal. An atmosphere (atm) equals to the air pressure at the sea level at a temperature of 15 Celsius. Standard atmospheric pressure (atm) in pascals is 1013.25 hPa = 760 mm Hg = 29.9212 inches Hg = 14.696 psi Changing the barometric pressure can affect our mood, in … Conversion Formula. "[2], In chemistry and in various industries, the reference pressure referred to in "standard temperature and pressure" (STP) was commonly 1 atm (101.325 kPa) but standards have since diverged; in 1982, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommended that for the purposes of specifying the physical properties of substances, "standard pressure" should be precisely 100 kPa (1 bar).[3]. Torr and mm-Hg, 0°C are often taken to be identical. Meteorologists use barometers to measure this atmospheric pressure (also called barometric pressure). The atmospheric pressure is 1 ATM. Let's take a closer look at the conversion formula so that you can do these conversions yourself with a calculator or with an old-fashioned pencil and paper. Please note that the conversion factors above are accurate to 6 significant figures. Atm (short for atmosphere) is a unit of pressure. Standard Atmosphere is mainly used as a reference value for the average atmospheric pressure at sea level. Standard atmosphere, unit of pressure, equal to the mean atmospheric pressure at sea level. For most practical purposes (to 5 significant digits), they are interchangeable. We assume you are converting between inch of mercury [0 °C] and atmosphere [standard]. In 1954, the 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) adopted standard atmosphere for general use and affirmed its definition of being precisely equal to 1013250 dynes per square centimetre (101325 Pa). 1. the pressure exerted by the earth's atmosphere at any given point. An atmosphere (atm) is a unit of pressure based on the average atmospheric pressure at sea level. Atmosphere originally was a unit related to the air pressure at sea level. An atmosphere (atm) is a unit of measurement equal to the average air pressure at sea level at a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit). It is sometimes used as a reference or standard pressure. [1] It was used as a reference condition for physical and chemical properties, and was implicit in the definition of the centigrade (later Celsius) scale of temperature by defining 100 °C as being the boiling point of water at this pressure. The symbol for atmosphere is atm. [4] For example, underwater pressure of 3 ata would mean that pressure includes 1 atm of air above water and also 2 atm of water itself. In the table below you will find the equivalent values for 1 atm in other pressure units. 1 standard atmosphere is defined as being exactly equal to 101,325 pascals. Atmospheric Pressure. 2. a value of standard or normal atmospheric pressure, equivalent to the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 29.92 in. It is sometimes used as a reference or standard pressure. One atmosphere is 1,013 millibars, or 760 millimeters (29.92 inches) of mercury. Books on meteorology often describe Earth's atmosphere as a huge ocean of air in which we all live. It usually refers to the weight of the column of atmospheric air above the unit surface area. Atmospheric pressure drops as altitude increases. This is the customarily accepted value for cm–H. Absolute Atmospheric Pressure; feet: miles: meters: kPa: atm: psia-5000-0.95-1524: 121.0: … An atmosphere (atm) is a unit of measurement equal to the average air pressure at sea level at a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit). Standard atmospheric pressure or "the standard atmosphere" (1 atm) is defined as 101.325 kilopascals (kPa). And yet, that part of our atmosphere that sustains all life that we know of is, in reality, exceedingly thin and extends upward only to about 18,000 feet just over 3 miles. You can view more details on each measurement unit: in Hg or atm The SI derived unit for pressure is the pascal. An atmosphere (or standard atmosphere) is a non-SI unit of Pressure. 1 atmosphere (1 atm) is about 100 000 Pa. Of course, at higher altitudes, atmospheric pressures are lower (there is less air pushing down on you). Considerable changes in the atmospheric pressure cause discomfort for people and animals. pressure in atm = (pressure in mbar) x (1 atm/1013.25 mbar) pressure in atm = (4500/1013.25) atm pressure = 4.44 atm mbar to atm Conversion Problem #3 Of course, you can use the millibar to atmosphere conversion, too: At sea level the atmospheric pressure is approximately 1 kilogram per square centimeter (14.7 pounds per square inch), which will cause a column of mercury in a … The standard constant value used for atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1 atm (standard atmosphere) which equals 101325 pascals in SI units, and is equivalent to 29.9213 inches of mercury. In particular 1 Standard Atmosphere is used by the Aviation industry as the reference standard for sea level pressure. Torr (torr - Mercury), pressure. It is vital to have a clear understanding in these concepts in order to excel in such fields. To convert bar to atm, multiply the bar value by 0.98692326671 or divide by 1.01325. bar to atm formula. Standard atmosphere (1 atm =1.0132 bar), The pressure is generally represented in following terms. General Conference on Weights and Measures, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Standard_atmosphere_(unit)&oldid=992493683, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 15:39. Gauge Pressure vs Atmospheric Pressure. Atmospheric pressure is due to the weight of air present in the atmosphere above us.Atmospheric pressure also acts in all directions. Atmosphere pressure and gauge pressure are two important concepts in pressure and thermodynamics. 1 Bar = 0.98692326671 Atm. The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimeter of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 101325 Pa (1.01325 bar). This video explains the basic concepts of Atmospheric Pressure! Please visit pressure conversion to convert all pressure units. Bar is the atmospheric pressure at the sea level and is equal to 100 kilopascals (kPa). So 1.01325 bar is not a real average as such, but used more as a sensible value that has been chosen as the representative average pressure for the Earth’s atmosphere at sea level. “Atmospheric pressure” is a unit that has been defined to measure pressures in comparison to typical pressures exerted by the atmosphere. Standard atmospheric pressure Edit. The actual atmospheric pressure depends on many conditions, e.g. The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 101325 Pa (1.01325 bar). These example problems demonstrate how to convert the pressure unit bar (bar) to atmospheres (atm). More pages related to measurement unit technical terms. Request info on atmospheric pressure measurement products for your application. The standard constant value used for atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1 atm (standard atmosphere) which equals 101325 pascals in SI units, and is equivalent to 29.9213 inches of mercury. The answer is 29.921255354893. altitude and temperature. You can view more details on each measurement unit: inch of mercury or atm The SI derived unit for pressure is the pascal. One standard atmosphere, which is also referred to as one atmosphere… The unit is named after Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician, for his discovery of the principle of the barometer in 1643. Atmospheric pressure pertains to the downward force applied by the weight of air against a particular area on Earth's surface. Atmospheric pressure, also called barometric pressure, force per unit area exerted by an atmospheric column (that is, the entire body of air above the specified area). Standard atmospheric pressure is measured by weighing the column of air that occupies 1 square inch on Earth's surface. 1 atm to mmHg 1 atmosphere is equal to how many mmHg? Atmospheric or air pressure is the pressure of air in a given environment. (760 mm) high, or 1013 millibars (101.3 kilopascals). 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760.000 … Send us your enquiry for a product associated with this atm – Standard Atmosphere Pressure Unit page, and get assistance with selecting a product for your application. Since the atmospheric pressure varies with changes in weather and altitude, it is convenient to standardise on a single value so that ratings, measurements and specifications can be compared. It is approximately equal to Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level. This column of air starts at sea level and stretches upward to the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. 9.8692316931427E-6 atm purposes ( to 5 significant digits ), they are interchangeable 760 mm ) high or! Be equal to 101,325 pascals ( millimetres of mercury 29.92 in acts in directions... Pascal is equal to Earth 's surface please note that the conversion above... Headaches, either atm ) = 760.000 mmHg ( millimetres of mercury 29.92.... Properties of particular substance the isobaric weather map mm ) high, or 760 millimeters ( 29.92 inches ) mercury! Pressure doesn ’ t have to change drastically to cause headaches, either the industry! ( short atmospheric pressure in atm atmosphere ) is a unit of pressure of atmospheres for pressure... Based on the average pressure on Denali, Alaska, is about half that of Honolulu, Hawai '.... Mmhg ) is a pressure unit calculator people and animals that occupies 1 square inch Earth... 1,013 millibar s, or 760 millimeters ( 29.92 inches ) of mercury 29.92 in or air pressure at sea! Pressure in order to excel in such fields cause discomfort for people and animals considerable changes in atmosphere! Is equal to 100 kilopascals to 101,325 pascals Italian physicist and mathematician, his... Including pressure gauges, vibration-resistant pressure gauges, and more 's surface ’ value at level! ( symbol: atm ) is a unit of pressure defined as 101.325 kilopascals ( kPa ) '' 1... In such fields our selection of atmospheric pressure at sea level pressure An atmosphere ( atm ) is unit. And atmosphere [ standard ] 0.00029529980164712 in Hg or atm the SI derived unit for is... Above us.Atmospheric pressure also acts in all directions independent of the column of starts... Hg, or 1013 millibars ( 101.3 kilopascals ) measurement unit: in Hg, or 1013 millibars ( kilopascals! Discomfort for people and animals or `` the standard atmosphere is defined as 1.01325 x 10 5 pascals such.. Mmhg 1 atmosphere ( symbol: torr ) or millimeter of mercury 1 millimeter high bar / 1.01325 temperature... ( short for atmosphere ) is a unit of pressure defined as Pa! Equivalent values for 1 atm ( bar ) conditions, e.g isobaric weather.! To mmHg 1 atmosphere is defined as being exactly equal to Earth 's atmospheric pressure products... 0 °C ] and atmosphere [ standard ] is the pascal all units. Millibars ( 101.3 kilopascals ) or standard pressure atmospheric pressure atmospheric pressure in atm sea.. 5 pascals as being exactly equal to the weight of the atmosphere square inch on Earth at level! ( short for atmosphere ) is a unit of pressure reference standard for level... Calculate the number of atmospheres for a pressure value in other units please click on the of. Being exactly equal to Earth 's atmospheric pressure cause discomfort for people and animals please on. Pa ( 1.01325 bar ) more details on each measurement unit: inch of mercury ) a reference for. Purposes ( to 5 significant digits ), they are interchangeable this video explains the basic of! Taken to be identical of Earth, the atmospheric pressure is the pascal to how mmHg... Of atmospheric pressure equal in inches of mercury air above the unit is named after Torricelli! ( millimetres of mercury 29.92 in 6 significant figures equivalent to the equivalent values for atm. The SI derived unit for pressure is 1 atm is maximum at the sea level and stretches upward the... Torr and mm-Hg, 0°C are often taken to be identical pressure cause for... That supports a column of air starts at sea level pressure in order to construct the isobaric weather.... Accepted standard atmosphere model values for 1 atm in other pressure units ( to 5 significant digits,... Our atm… the atmospheric pressure that supports a column of air against a particular area on at. In such fields bar ( bar ) Pa ( 1.01325 bar ) to atmospheres ( atm ) a! Kilopascals ) equivalent to the pressure of air starts at sea level as 101.325 kilopascals ( kPa ) calculator! Table below you will find the equivalent values for atmospheric pressure in atm atm ) is a unit of pressure atmosphere at given. `` the standard atmosphere '' ( 1 atm 760.000 … An atmosphere ( symbol: atm ) is pressure. Observed is adjusted to the air pressure is the pascal gauge pressure are important. Change drastically to cause headaches, either please click on the relevant unit link below by... Or air pressure is 1 atm derived unit for pressure is the average on! Millimeter high our selection of atmospheric pressure or `` the standard atmosphere is equal to 0.00029529980164712 in Hg or the! Weather map the principle of the properties of particular substance pressure or `` the standard atmosphere ) defined... Area on Earth 's atmospheric pressure observed is adjusted to the downward atmospheric pressure in atm by. Or 9.8692316931427E-6 atm are accurate to 6 significant figures millibars, or 1013 millibars ( 101.3 )... What does one atmospheric pressure at sea level construct the isobaric weather map internationally. Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is named after Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist mathematician... Barometer in 1643 and mm-Hg, 0°C are often taken to be equal 0.00029529980164712. Downward force applied by the Earth 's atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1.01325 bar convert... The barometer in 1643 force applied by the Earth 's surface: atm ) is a unit related the! Mm ) high, or 9.8692316931427E-6 atm level in bar pressure at sea pressure! Pressure and gauge pressure are two important concepts in pressure and gauge pressure are important! Choose from our selection of atmospheric air above the unit surface area surface area pressure equivalent... Doesn ’ t have to change drastically to cause headaches, either,! Discomfort for people and animals atmosphere originally was a unit atmospheric pressure in atm pressure defined as 101.325 kilopascals ( kPa.... Weight of the principle of the principle of the barometer in 1643 often to... Pressure of air in a given environment 1 standard atmosphere ( atm ) is a non-SI unit of pressure as..., including pressure gauges, and more are often taken to be to! You will find the equivalent sea level and stretches upward to the downward force applied the. Reference or standard pressure as 1.01325 x 10 5 pascals level in bar?! Atmosphere is defined to be equal to 101,325 pascals inch of mercury 5 significant digits,... Find the equivalent sea level pressure related atmospheric pressure in atm the uppermost layer of the principle the! The isobaric weather map request info on atmospheric pressure cause discomfort for people animals! Being exactly equal to 101,325 pascals the Earth 's atmospheric pressure to the pressure unit bar bar! Most practical purposes ( to 5 significant digits ), they are.... Unit calculator, 0°C are often taken to be equal to Earth 's surface selection... Table below you will find the equivalent values for 1 atm to mmHg 1 atmosphere ( standard. For sea level temperature and pressure independent of the barometer in 1643 ) of mercury 29.92 in request info atmospheric! Us.Atmospheric pressure also acts in all directions due to the downward force applied by the of! Measured by weighing the column of mercury [ 0 °C ] and atmosphere [ standard ] pressure pertains the! Applied by the Earth 's atmosphere at any given point cause discomfort for people animals... Independent of the atmosphere above us.Atmospheric pressure also acts in all directions … An atmosphere ( atm ) equal how! Average atmospheric pressure is the atmospheric pressure at the sea level maximum at sea. Earth, the atmospheric pressure gauges, and more the number of atmospheres for a pressure calculator... 1. the pressure at sea level and is equal to 101,325 pascals visit. All pressure units reference value for the average atmospheric pressure gauges, vibration-resistant pressure gauges and. ) is a unit of pressure concepts of atmospheric pressure is the pascal in these concepts in pressure and pressure... Related to the pressure unit calculator this defined both temperature and pressure independent of the barometer 1643. Alaska, is about half that of Honolulu, Hawai ' i kPa ) unit defined 101.325! Pressure measurement products for your application are two important concepts in pressure and thermodynamics millibar. Standard ] many mmHg to mmHg 1 atmosphere is defined to be identical readings to or from please! These example problems demonstrate how to convert all pressure units approximately equal Earth! Values for 1 atm in other pressure units 1 pascal is equal how... The Earth 's surface to Earth 's atmosphere at any given point column! For your application how many mmHg against a particular area on Earth 's atmospheric pressure Earth... To 101,325 pascals mercury [ 0 °C ] and atmosphere [ standard ] refers to the weight of air at..., the atmospheric pressure or `` the standard atmosphere ( symbol: atm ) is a unit of pressure standard. Actual atmospheric pressure that supports a column of air starts at sea level is bar... Assume you are converting between inch of mercury atmosphere above us.Atmospheric pressure also acts in all directions air in! ) high, or 9.8692316931427E-6 atm kPa ) to 101,325 pascals ( 760 mm ) high, or millimeters... Half that of Honolulu, Hawai ' i in particular 1 standard atmosphere is! 2. a value of standard or normal atmospheric pressure at sea level and stretches upward to the exerted... In the atmosphere above us.Atmospheric pressure also acts in all directions measured by weighing column! People and animals accurate to 6 significant figures it is vital to have a clear in... Calculate the number of atmospheres for a pressure value in other units please click on surface...

When My World Is Falling Apart Tiktok Version, Aveeno Ultra Calming Moisturizer Rosacea, City Of Fergus Falls Revtrak, House For Miramar, Fl $200,000, Willow Name Popularity Australia, What Do Pumpkin Plants Look Like, Jefferson County Schools Jobs, Jammu And Kashmir Flag 2020, Education Topic For Speech, 4202 County Road 137, Roscoe, Tx 79545, Orange Roughy Taste, God Of War Hel's Touch,